It uncovers gaps in their representation of men, masculinities and/or male sexualities, and exposes areas of contradiction and anxiety for men, areas which the texts are frequently at pains to ignore, smooth over or silence. This book offers an introduction to the developing pro-feminist field of critical masculinities studies.Buchbinder examines the notion of patriarchy and the challenges to patriarchal power, including queer theory.He considers whether crisis may in fact be built into the very structure of the masculine, and examines emergent masculinities post-9/11.
Lees / Thelma Fenster / Jo Ann Mc Namara  Medieval masculinities: Regarding men in the Middle Ages, 31-45. The concept of gender in general, and that of masculinity in particular, can be understood only in relation to individual societies, examined at specific historical and cultural moments.
Bullough explores the issues of men’s studies and contemporary theories of gender within the context of the Middle Ages.
Carver, Terrell  Men in Political Theory Manchester: Manchester University Press. This book builds on feminist re-readings of the traditional canon of male writers in political philosophy by turning the gender lens on to the representation of men in widely studies texts.
It explains the distinction between ‘man’ as an apparently de-gendered ‘individual’ or ‘citizen’, and ‘man’ as an overtly gendered being in human society.
Carrigan, Tim / Connell, Bob / Lee, Joh  Toward a new sociology of masculinity In: Theory and Society, 14(5): 551-601.
The starting point for any understanding of masculinity must be men’s involvement in the social relations that constitute the gender order.
It is impossible to fully understand masculinity without considering its connection with family change and women’s change.
Men’s practices and discourses are examined in their relationships with women and their changing femininities.
Masculinities are constructed not just by power relations but by their interplay with a division of labor and with patterns of emotional attachment.
The most important feature of hegemonic masculinity, alongside its connection with dominance, is that it is heterosexual.
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